Half-Dollar Coin Act



United States Founding
Half-Dollar Coin Act 


An Act to require the Secretary of the Treasury to mint coins in commemoration of each of the Nation's past Presidents of the Continental Congress and United States in Congress Assembled along with  their spouses, respectively, to improve circulation of the Half-Dollar Coin.   

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.


This Act may be cited as the U.S. Founding Half-Dollar Coin Act of 2013.

TITLE I--PRESIDENTIAL AND CAPITOL HALF-DOLLAR COINS


SEC. 101. FINDINGS.


Congress finds the following: 

(1) There are sectors of the United States economy, including public transportation, parking meters, vending machines, and low-dollar value transactions, in which the use of a Half-Dollar Coin is both useful and desirable for keeping costs and prices down. 

(2) For a variety of reasons, the Half-Dollar   has not been widely sought-after by the public, leading to higher costs for merchants and thus higher prices for consumers. 

(3) The success of the 50 States Commemorative Coin Program (31 U.S.C. 5112(l)) for circulating quarter dollars shows that a design on a United States circulating coin that is regularly changed in a manner similar to the systematic change in designs in such Program radically increases demand for the coin, rapidly pulling it through the economy. 

(4) The 50 States Commemorative Coin Program also has been an educational tool, teaching both Americans and visitors something about each State for which a quarter has been issued. 

(5) The decline of the half-dollar began with the introduction of the Kennedy half-dollar in 1964. Production on the Franklin half-dollar had risen from 20 million in 1959 to 90 million in 1963 due to rising demand. Due to the popularity of President John F. Kennedy, the 1.3 billion coins minted between 1964 and 1970 were taken out of circulation by silver speculators and President Kennedy Admirers.  

(6) In 1971 the U.S. Mint began making half-dollars out of cupronickel-clad copper but although production reached its peak in 1974 at 280 million coins the Kennedy half-dollars were not utilized in circulation.   

(7) John F. Kennedy, as currently represented on the Half-Dollar coin, is an important President of American history but the image has now resulted in declined circulation of coin to a minting of only 3.4 million in 2008 with few in circulation. 

(8) Unlike the current $1 coin that is not being circulated by the public, the shape and size of the half-dollar has been produced nearly every year since the inception of the United States Mint in 1794. The only U.S. coin that has been minted more consistently is the penny. 

(9) There is a need for a widely circulated high value coin and the re-introduced half-dollar can fill that need.     

 (10) Most people do not realize that the United States of America conducted its war for independence under the Articles of Association which created the Continental Congress whose members elected a President from 1774-1781.  Under the Articles of Association the Continental Congress also elected the first Commander-in-Chief in 1775, George Washington, who initially reported to the President.  

(11) Most people do not realize that the United States of America concluded its war with Great Britain and governed the nation under an unanimously ratified federal constitution known as the Articles of Confederation from 1781-1788. The delegates of this constitutional government elected ten Presidents of the United States, in Congress Assembled. 

(12) The Continental Congress and United States in Congress Assembled 14 Presidents were leaders of our unicameral government serving the United Colonies and States from 1774 to 1788.     

(13) Most people cannot name, other than John Hancock, even one pre-Constitution of 1787 President or evens know there were United Colony/States unicameral presidencies from 1774-1788.   

(14) During the unicameral government’s existence a second leadership office, Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces was enacted and held exclusively by George Washington from 1775 to 1783.     

(15) The obverse of these half-dollar coins are designed, at long last, to enumerate and delineate the Presidencies of the Continental Congress,   United States, in Congress Assembled Presidency and the office of Commander-in-Chief. 

(16) Moreover, most people do not realize the government of the United Colonies and States convened in eight different towns and cities during the founding period.  There were twelve different buildings utilized as capitols.  Additionally, the first Congressional Caucus of 1774 was held in a thirteenth building - Philadelphia’s City Tavern while the unicameral government faded away in Fraunces Tavern of New York City in 1789.  

(17) In keeping with the $1 Coin order to revitalize the design of United States coinage and return circulating coinage to its position as not only a necessary means of exchange in commerce, but also as an object of aesthetic beauty in its own right, it is appropriate to move many of the mottos and emblems, the inscription of the year, and the so-called mint marks' that currently appear on the 2 faces of each circulating coin to the edge of the coin, which would allow larger and more dramatic artwork on the coins. 

 

Copyright © 2012 Stanley Y.Klos
Richard Henry Lee's Stratford Hall
On the Half-Dollar Coin Act

SEC. 102.  U.S. FOUNDING Half-Dollar COIN PROGRAM.


Section, is amended by adding at the end the following:

(n) Redesign and Issuance of Circulating Half-Dollar  Coins honoring the Commander-in-Chief and each of the Presidents of the Continental Congress and the United States, in Congress Assembled on the obverse and the Continental Congress and United States in Congress Assembled Capitol buildings on the reverse.

(1) REDESIGN BEGINNING IN 2011- 

(A) IN GENERAL- Notwithstanding subsection (d) and in accordance with the provisions of this subsection, Half-Dollar coins issued during the period beginning January 1, 2011, and ending upon the termination of the program under paragraph (8), shall-- 
(i) have designs on the obverse selected in accordance with paragraph (2)(B) which are emblematic of the Commander-in-Chief, Continental Congress and United States in Congress Assembled Presidents of the United Colonies and States of America (herein after called President(s)); and
(ii) have a design on the reverse of the Continental Congress and United States in Congress Assembled Capitol buildings selected in accordance with paragraph (2)(A).

(B) CONTINUITY PROVISIONS- 
(i) IN GENERAL- Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall continue to mint and issue Half-Dollar Coins which bear any design in effect before the issuance of coins as required under this subsection (including the so-called Kennedy’ Half-Dollar coins). 

(ii) CIRCULATION QUANTITY- Beginning January 1, 2011, and ending upon the termination of the program under paragraph (8), the Secretary annually shall mint and issue such Presidential and Capitol Half-Dollar’   coins for circulation in quantities of no less than 1/3 of the total Half-Dollar  coins minted and issued under this subsection.'

(2) DESIGN REQUIREMENTS- The Half-Dollar coins issued in accordance with paragraph (1) (A) shall meet the following design requirements: 

(A)  COIN REVERSE- The design on the reverse shall bear— 

(i) a historic period likeness of City Tavern, Philadelphia; Carpenters
Hall, Philadelphia;  Independence Hall, Philadelphia; Old Congress Hall, Baltimore;  Lancaster Court House, Lancaster; York-Town Court House, York; College Hall, Philadelphia; Articles of Confederation,  Great Seal of the United States;   Prospect House, Princeton; Nassau Hall, Princeton; Maryland State House, Annapolis; French Arms Tavern, Trenton, Old Federal Hall, New York City; and Fraunces Tavern, New York   with the year(s) congress convened, the name of the town and state, and the word capitol (except of City Tavern Philadelphia and the Great Seal) large enough to provide a dramatic representation of the building, Great Seal or Articles while not being large enough to create the impression of a 2-headed' coin;
(ii) the inscription Half-Dollar; and
(iii) the inscription United States of America'.
(iv) Years of the Building’s use by Congress
(v) Words “Great Seal of the United States – 1782” above the Great Seal
(vi) Words “Perpetual Union Ratified – 1781” above the Articles of Confederation.

(B) COIN OBVERSE- The design on the obverse shall contain— 

(i) the name and likeness of a Peyton Randolph; Henry Middleton, John Hancock, George Washington, Henry Laurens, John Jay, Samuel Huntington, Samuel Huntington, Thomas McKean, John Hanson, Elias Boudinot, Thomas Mifflin, Richard Henry Lee, John Hancock, Nathaniel Gorham, Arthur St. Clair  and Cyrus Griffin.
(ii) basic information about the President and Commander-in-Chief, including: 
(I) the dates or years of the term of office of such President and Commander-in-Chief; and 
(II) a number indicating the order of the period of service in which the President served. 
(III) the name of the Body served Continental Congress or United States in Congress Assembled except for the Commander-in-Chief which will state First Commander-in-Chief - United Colonies and States of America; 

(C) EDGE-INCUSED INSCRIPTIONS- 

(i) IN GENERAL- The inscription of the year of minting or issuance of the coin and the inscriptions E Pluribus Unum' and In God We Trust' shall be edge-incused into the coin. 
(ii) PRESERVATION OF DISTINCTIVE EDGE- The edge-incusing of the inscriptions under clause (i) on coins issued under this subsection

shall be done in a manner that preserves the distinctive edge of the coin so that the denomination of the coin is readily discernible, including by
individuals who are blind or visually impaired.

Copyright © 2012 Stanley Y.Klos
Thomas Jefferson's Monticello
on the  
 Half Dollar Coin Act 


(3) ISSUANCE OF COINS COMMEMORATING PRESIDENTS- 

(A) ORDER OF ISSUANCE OBVERSE - The coins issued under this subsection commemorating Presidents of the United States shall be issued in the order of the period of service of each President and Commander-in-Chief in the as follows: Year One: Peyton Randolph 1774-1775; Henry Middleton 1774, John Hancock 1775-1777, Commander-in-Chief George Washington 1775-1783, Year Two: Henry Laurens 1777-1778, John Jay 1778-1779, Samuel Huntington 1779-1781, Samuel Huntington 1781, Year Three: Thomas McKean 1781, John Hanson 1781-1782, Elias Boudinot1782-1783, Thomas Mifflin 1783-1784, Year Four: Richard Henry Lee 1784-1785, John Hancock 1785-1786, Nathaniel Gorham 1786, Arthur St. Clair 1787  and Cyrus Griffin 1787-1788. 

(B) ORDER OF ISSUANCE REVERSE -The coins issued under this subsection commemorating the Capitols of the United States shall be issued in the order Randolph Coin - City Tavern (1774), Philadelphia with the words “First Congressional Caucus”; Middleton Coin -Carpenters Hall (1774), Philadelphia with the words “Articles of Association”;  Hancock Coin - Independence Hall (1775-1783),  Philadelphia with the words “Declaration of Independence”; Washington Coin - Old Congress Hall (1775), Baltimore with the words “Victory at Trenton”;  Laurens Coin - York-Town Court House (1777-1778), York, PA with the words “Victory at Saratoga”; Jay Coin - College Hall (1778-1779), Philadelphia with the words “U.S. Peace Commissioners”; Huntington Coin Independence Hall (1775-1783) with the words “Charleston Surrenders”; Huntington CoinIndependence Hall (1775-1783),  Philadelphia words “Perpetual Union Ratified 1781”;   McKean Coin - Independence Hall (1775-1783) Philadelphia; with the words “Victory at Yorktown”,  John Hanson Coin - Great Seal of the United States  with the words “Great Seal of the United States 1782”;   Boudinot Coin - Nassau Hall (1783), Princeton with the words “Treaty of Paris 1783”; Mifflin Coin - Maryland State House (1784), Annapolis, “Commander-in-Chief Resigns”, Lee Coin - French Arms Tavern (1785), Trenton with the words “Western Land Ordinance”;Hancock Coin – Lancaster Court House (1777), Lancaster with the words “Congress in Flight”;   Nathaniel Gorham Coin - Old Federal Hall (1785-1790) New York City;  “Shays’ Rebellion”, Arthur St. Clair Coin – Old Federal Hall (1785-1790) New York City;  with the words of “Northwest Ordinance” and Griffin Coin - Fraunces Tavern (1788), New York with the words “Constitution of 1787 Ratified”.   

(C) TREATMENT OF PERIOD OF SERVICE- 

(i) JOHN HANCOCK- two coins shall be issued under Subject one as the third President of the Continental Congress and one as the Seventh President of the United States in Congress Assembled. 
(ii) SAMUEL HUNTINGTON- two coins shall be issued under Subject one as the sixth President of the Continental Congress and one as the First President of the United States, in Congress Assembled.

(4) ISSUANCE OF COINS COMMEMORATING 4 PRESIDENTS OR COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF DURING EACH YEAR OF THE PERIOD- 

(A) IN GENERAL- The designs for the Half-Dollar   coins issued during each year of the period referred to in paragraph (1) shall be emblematic of 4 Presidents or Commander-in-Chief until each President and the Commander-in-Chief  has been so honored, subject to paragraph (2)(E). 

(B) NUMBER OF 4 CIRCULATING COIN DESIGNS IN EACH YEAR- The Secretary shall prescribe, on the basis of such factors as the Secretary determines to be appropriate, the number of Half-Dollar coins that shall be issued with each of the designs selected for each year of the period referred to in paragraph (1). 

(5) LEGAL TENDER- The coins minted under this title shall be legal tender, as provided in section 5103. 

(6) TREATMENT AS NUMISMATIC ITEMS- For purposes of section 5134 and 5136, all coins minted under this subsection shall be considered to be numismatic items. 

(7) ISSUANCE OF NUMISMATIC COINS- The Secretary may mint and issue such number of Half-Dollar coins of each design selected under this subsection in uncirculated and proof qualities as the Secretary determines to be appropriate. 
(8) TERMINATION OF PROGRAM- The issuance of coins under this subsection shall terminate when each President has been so honored, subject to paragraph (2)(E), and may not be resumed except by an Act of Congress. 

(9) REVERSION TO PRECEDING DESIGN- Upon the termination of the issuance of coins under this subsection, the design of all Half-Dollar   coins shall revert to the so-called Kennedy’ Half-Dollar   coins.'
(10) SALE OF BULLION COINS- Each bullion coin issued under this subsection shall be sold by the Secretary at a price that is equal to or greater than the sum of-- 

(A) the face value of the coins; and
(B) the cost of designing and issuing the coins (including labor, materials, dies, use of machinery, overhead expenses, marketing, and shipping).

Copyright © 2012 Stanley Y.Klos
College of William and Mary
on the 
 Half Dollar Coin Act

SEC. 104. REMOVAL OF BARRIERS TO CIRCULATION.


Section 5112 of title 31, United States Code, as amended by sections 102 and 103, by adding at the end the following: 

(p) Removal of Barriers to Circulation of Half-Dollar   Coin 

(1) ACCEPTANCE BY AGENCIES AND INSTRUMENTALITIES- Beginning January 1, 2006, all agencies and instrumentalities of the United States, the United States Postal Service, all non-appropriated fund instrumentalities established under title 10, United States Code, all transit systems that receive operational subsidies or any disbursement of funds from the Federal Government, such as funds from the Federal Highway Trust Fund, including the Mass Transit Account, and all entities that operate any business, including vending machines, on any premises owned by the United States or under the control of any agency or instrumentality of the United States, including the legislative and judicial branches of the Federal Government, shall take such action as may be appropriate to ensure that by the end of the 2-year period beginning on such date--

(A) any business operations conducted by any such agency, instrumentality, system, or entity that involve coins or currency will be fully capable of accepting and dispensing Half-Dollar   coins in connection with such operations; and 

(B) displays signs and notices denoting such capability on the premises where coins or currency are accepted or dispensed, including on each vending machine. 

(2) PUBLICITY- The Director of the United States Mint, shall work closely with consumer groups, media outlets, and schools to ensure an adequate amount of news coverage, and other means of increasing public awareness, of the inauguration of the Presidential Half-Dollar   Coin Program established in subsection (n) to ensure that consumers know of the availability of the coin. 

(3) COORDINATION- The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Secretary shall take steps to ensure that an adequate supply of Half-Dollar   coins is available for commerce and collectors at such places and in such quantities as are appropriate by— 

(A) consulting, to accurately gauge demand for coins and to anticipate and eliminate obstacles to the easy and efficient distribution and circulation of Half-Dollar   coins as well as all other circulating coins, from time to time but no less frequently than annually, with a coin users group, which may include— 

(i) representatives of merchants who would benefit from the increased usage of Half-Dollar coins; 
(ii) vending machine and other coin acceptor manufacturers; 
(iii) vending machine owners and operators; 
(iv) transit officials; 
(v) municipal parking officials; 
(vi) depository institutions;
(vii) coin and currency handlers; 
(viii) armored-car operators; 
(ix) car wash operators; and 
(x) coin collectors and dealers; 

(B) submitting an annual report to the Congress containing— 

(i) an assessment of the remaining obstacles to the efficient and timely circulation of coins, particularly Half-Dollar   coins; 
(ii) an assessment of the extent to which the goals of subparagraph (C) are being met; and 
(iii) such recommendations for legislative action the Board and the Secretary may determine to be appropriate; 

(C) consulting with industry representatives to encourage operators of vending machines and other automated coin-accepting devices in the United States to accept coins issued under the Presidential Half-Dollar   Coin Program established under subsection (n) and any coins bearing any design in effect before the issuance of coins required under subsection (n) (including the so-called Kennedy-design' Half-Dollar   coins), and to include notices on the machines and devices of such acceptability;

(D) ensuring that-- 
(i) during an introductory period, all institutions that want unmixed supplies of each newly-issued design of Half-Dollar   coins minted under subsections (n) and (o) are able to obtain such unmixed supplies; and 
(ii) circulating coins will be available for ordinary commerce in packaging of sizes and types appropriate for and useful to ordinary commerce, including rolled coins; 

(E) working closely with any agency, instrumentality, system, or entity referred to in paragraph (1) to facilitate compliance with the requirements of such paragraph; and 

(F) identifying, analyzing, and overcoming barriers to the robust circulation of Half-Dollar   coins minted under subsections (n) and (o), including the use of demand prediction, improved methods of distribution and circulation, and improved public education and awareness campaigns. 

(4) BULLION DEALERS- The Director of the United States Mint shall take all steps necessary to ensure that a maximum number of reputable, reliable, and responsible dealers are qualified to offer for sale all bullion coins struck and issued by the US Mint.  

(5) REVIEW OF CO-CIRCULATION- At such time as the Secretary determines to be appropriate, and after consultation with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Secretary shall notify the Congress of its assessment of issues related to the co-circulation of any circulating Half-Dollar   coin bearing any design, other than the so-called Kennedy-design' Half-Dollar   coin, in effect before the issuance of coins required under subsection (n), including the effect of co-circulation on the acceptance and use of Half-Dollar   coins, and make recommendations to the Congress for improving the circulation of Half-Dollar coins.
Copyright © 2012 Stanley Y.Klos
U.S. Mint
on the 
 Half Dollar Coin Act

SEC. 105. SENSE OF THE CONGRESS.

It is the sense of the Congress that— 

(1) the enactment of this Act will serve to increase the use of Half-Dollar coins generally, which will increase the circulation of the so-called Kennedy-design' Half-Dollar   coins that have been and will continue to be minted and issued; 

(2) after four years, the continued minting and issuance of the so-called Kennedy-design' Half-Dollar   coins will serve as a lasting tribute to President John F. Kennedy; 

(3) the full circulation potential and cost-savings benefit projections for the Half-Dollar   coins are not likely to be achieved unless the coins are delivered in ways useful to ordinary commerce; 

(4) the coins issued in connection with this title should not be introduced with an overly expensive taxpayer-funded public relations campaign; 

(5) in order for the circulation of Half-Dollar   coins to achieve maximum potential-- 

(A) the coins should be as attractive as possible; and 

(B) the Director of the United States Mint should take all reasonable steps to ensure that all Half-Dollar   coins minted and issued remain tarnish-free for as long as possible without incurring undue expense; and 

(6) if the Secretary of the Treasury determines to include on any Half-Dollar   coin minted under section 102 of this Act a mark denoting the United States Mint facility at which the coin was struck, such mark should be edge-incused.





Please Visit The
Gubernatorial Proclamation Declaring Samuel Huntington
 the First President of the United States




What Can I do to help?
  • Write President Barack Obama and the committee members urging them to support the proposed Half Dollar Coin Act.
  • Pass on the U.S. Founding Half-Dollar Coin Act  site onto others asking for their support.
  • Write or call the Committee Members listed below.  Also let your Congressmen know about the proposal.
  • Purchase a Book, Capitol Posters, Presidential MedallionsButtons or Trading Cardsto help fund this effort.

Copyright © Stan Klos 2012
Visit America's Four Founding Republics

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A Brief History on the US Presidency


The First United American Republic

Continental Congress of the United Colonies Presidents 
Sept. 5, 1774 to July 1, 1776


September 5, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 26, 1774
May 20, 1775
May 24, 1775
May 25, 1775
July 1, 1776


Commander-in-Chief United Colonies of America
George Washington: June 15, 1775 - July 1, 1776



II. The Second United American Republic was established in 1776 when 12 States in the Continental Congress (New York abstained) passed the Resolution of Independence (July 2, 1776) and theDeclaration of Independence (July 4, 1776) declaring the Colonies “Free and Independent States.”Massachusetts Delegate John Hancock executed both resolutions as President of the United States Continental Congress.  The New York Provincial Congress approved the two Continental Congress independence resolutions on July 9th, 1776 thus making the Declaration of Independence unanimous.  The Declaration of Independence was the resolution that changed the name of the United Colonies of America to the United States of America. George Washington continued his service  as General and Commander-in-Chief of, the newly named, United States Continental Army.  


The Second United American Republic
Continental Congress of the United States Presidents 
July 2, 1776 to February 28, 1781

July 2, 1776
October 29, 1777
November 1, 1777
December 9, 1778
December 10, 1778
September 28, 1779
September 29, 1779
February 28, 1781


Commander-in-Chief United States of America
George Washington:  July 2, 1776 - February 28, 1781



III.  The Third United American Republic was established on March 1, 1781 when the United States Continental Congress enacted the first U.S. Constitution, the Articles of Confederation.  Although the Articles of Confederation was passed by the U.S. Continental Congress on November 15th, 1777, this Constitution of 1777 required the unanimous  ratification by all the 13 states.   Maryland was the last state to adopt the Articles of Confederation, completing its ratification on February 2, 1781. On February 22, 1781, it was unanimously resolved by Congress that:
The delegates of Maryland having taken their seats in Congress with powers to sign the Articles of Confederation: Ordered, That Thursday next [March 1, 1781] be assigned for compleating the Confederation; and that a committee of three be appointed, to consider and report a mode for announcing the same to the public: the members, [Mr. George] Walton, Mr. [James] Madison, Mr. [John] Mathews.


18th Century Journals of U.S. CONTINENTAL CONGRESS and USCA Congress for 1781 showing votes to adopt the 13 States ratification of the Articles of Confederation.  No matter how many delegates a state had they had only one vote. – Klos Yavneh Collection

The March 1st, 1781, enacted Constitution of 1777 provided for a unicameral governing body called the United States in Congress Assembled (USCA) to govern the United States of America.  The USCA was charged " .. to appoint one of their members to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years." 

On March 2nd, 1781, the Delegates, who were duly elected after each State had ratified the Articles of Confederation, convened in Philadelphia as the United States in Congress Assembled with Samuel Huntington presiding as the first USCA President.  Additionally, George Washington continued to serve as General and Commander-in-Chief of the United States Continental Army. 


Journals of the United States in Congress Assembled, March 2, 1781  entry recording "His excellency Samuel Huntington, delegate for Connecticut, President."

The Constitution of 1777 Presidency, although similar to its predecessor, was a different and weaker office then that of the U.S. Continental Congress Presidency.

For instance, the Continental Congress Presidents, who served from September 5, 1774 to February 28, 1781, presided over a government that could enact legislation binding all 13 States with only a seven state quorum as opposed to the nine state minimum required by the Constitution of 1777. Additionally, Continental Congress Presidents, who decided what legislation came before Congress, often found themselves as the sole vote for their state,  giving them a 1/7th to 1/13th vote over crucial legislation, appointments, judicial decisions, and even military orders enacted during the Revolutionary War.  After March 1, 1781, the Constitution of 1777 mandated that two or more delegates must be present from each state for that delegation to be marked present and be eligible to vote in the new USCA government.   Therefore, on March 2nd, 1781, the first act of the USCA was to disqualify both New Hampshire and Rhode Island from voting in the new assembly because they each had only one delegate present.

On May 4, 1781, to further weaken presidential powers, Congress passed the "Rules for conducting business in the United States in Congress assembled." that stripped the President of his power to control the congressional agenda which, was a tactic that the presiding officers (especially Henry Laurens) had expertly wielded as Continental Congress Presidents. These new USCA rules even went so far as to eliminate the President's prerogative to continue the debate, before a second to the motion was brought to the floor.
Rule 10. When a motion is made and seconded it shall be repeated by the President or If he or any other member desire being in writing it shall be delivered to the President in writing and read aloud at the table before it, shall be debated. 
There are numerous other examples on the differences between the two offices that range from the USCA's Committee of the States experiment to govern the USA by a "Board of Directors" without the USCA President at its head to John Hanson's success in championing the congressional resolution that moved the bulk of his presidential correspondence duties to USCA Secretary Charles Thomson. Moreover, USCA Foreign Secretaries Robert R. Livingston and John Jay took over most of the U.S. Presidential duties of entertaining foreign diplomats and dignitaries under the Articles of Confederation government.

George Washington continued to serve as General and Commander-in-Chief of the United States Continental Army until December 23, 1783. On that date, in Annapolis, Maryland, Washington submitted his resignation to President Thomas Mifflin during a regular session of the United States in Congress Assembled.



The Third United American Republic
Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled
March 1, 1781 to March 3, 1789

March 1, 1781
July 6, 1781
July 10, 1781
Declined Office
July 10, 1781
November 4, 1781
November 5, 1781
November 3, 1782
November 4, 1782
November 2, 1783
November 3, 1783
June 3, 1784
November 30, 1784
November 22, 1785
November 23, 1785
June 5, 1786
June 6, 1786
February 1, 1787
February 2, 1787
January 21, 1788
January 22, 1788
January 21, 1789


Commander-in-Chief United States of America
George Washington:  March 1, 1781 - December 23, 1783





IV.  The Fourth United American Republic was established by the United States Constitution of 1787and commenced, as resolved by an act of the USCA, on March 4th, 1789. The Constitution of 1787, unlike the Constitution of 1777, only required the ratification of nine states to adopt a new government for the United States of America. By August 1788 all thirteen states had held ratifying conventions and only two, North Carolina and Rhode Island, failed to adopt the Constitution of 1787. On September 13th, 1788 the USCA Delegates agreed on a federal capital location, without a dissentient voice or the least apparent animosity, and this was the last obstacle in finalizing the plan to launch the current federal republic.  The USCA, on the same day, enacted this enabling resolution: 
… whereas the constitution so reported by the Convention and by Congress transmitted to the several legislatures has been ratified in the manner therein declared to be sufficient for the establishment of the same and such ratifications duly authenticated have been received by Congress and are filed in the Office of the Secretary therefore Resolved That the first Wednesday in January next be the day for appointing Electors in the several states, which before the said day shall have ratified the said constitution; that the first Wednesday in February next be the day for the electors to assemble in their respective states and vote for a president; and that the first Wednesday in March next be the time and the present seat of Congress the place for commencing proceedings under the said constitution.
Tuesday, March 3rd, 1789, was established as the last day the USCA would govern the United States of America. 

On Wednesday, March 4th, 1789, neither the United States House of Representatives or the Senate was able to achieve their constitutionally mandated quorums. On April 1st, 1789, the United States House of Representatives achieved its first quorum. On April 6th, 1789, the United States Senate achieved its first quorum and elected its officers.  On April 21st, 1789 John Adams took the oath of Vice President and presided as United States Senate President. On April 30th, 1789, George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall as the first President and Commander-in-Chief of the United States of America. The Supreme Court was first called to assemble on On February 1, 1790, in the Merchants Exchange Building in New York City. The first Supreme Court was made up of Chief Justice, John Jay, from New York and Associate Justices:

John Rutledge, from South Carolina;
William Cushing, from Massachusetts;
James Wilson, from Pennsylvania;
John Blair, from Virginia.



The current President and Commander-in-Chief of the United States of America
Honorable Barack H. Obama


By: Stanley Yavneh Klos

  • First United American Republic: United Colonies of North America: 13 British Colonies United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies on September 5th, 1774 (Georgia joined in 1775)  and governed through a British Colonial Continental Congress.  Peyton Randolph and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief;
  • Second United American Republic: The United States of America: 13 Independent States United in Congress was founded by 12 states on July 2nd, 1776 (New York abstained until July 8th), and governed through the United States Continental CongressJohn Hancock and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Perpetual Union was founded by 13 States on March 1st, 1781, with the enactment of the first U.S. Constitution, the Articles of Confederation, and governed through the United States in Congress Assembled.  Samuel Huntington and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People  was formed by 11 states on March 4th, 1789 (North Carolina and Rhode Island joined in November 1789 and May 1790, respectively), with the enactment of the U.S. Constitution of 1787. The fourth and current United States Republic governs through  the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled, the U.S. President and Commander-in-Chief, and the U.S. Supreme Court.  George Washington served as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief.




The Fourth United American Republic
Presidents of the United States of America


Historic.us Exhibits

Stan Klos lecturing at the Republican National Convention's PoliticalFest 2000 Rebels With A Vision Exhibit  in Philadelphia's Convention Hall 

Primary Source exhibits are available for display in your community. The costs range from $1,000 to $25,000 depending on length of time on loan and the rarity of artifacts chosen. 



Historic.us

Dr. Naomi Yavneh Klos hosting the Louisiana Primary Source Exhibit at the State Capitol Building for the 2012 Bicentennial Celebration.





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Primary Source Exhibits

Exhibit Inquiries

202-239-1774 | Office

202-239-0037 | FAX 

Dr. Naomi and Stanley Yavneh Klos, Principals

Naomi@Historic.us
Stan@Historic.us

Primary Source exhibits are available for display in your community. The costs range from $1,000 to $35,000 depending on length of time on loan and the rarity of artifacts chosen. 

Website: www.Historic.us



 

Middle and High School Curriculum Supplement

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U.S. Dollar Presidential Coin Mr. Klos vs Secretary Paulson - Click Here


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